Anesthesia in preclinical studies. Message 2: dwarf pigs

Original article

УДК 615.03
DOI: 10.57034/2618723X-2023-02-05

D.Y. Akimov1,2,
Chief Veterinarian,
P.D. Shabanov2,
MD, Professor, Head of the Department of Neuropharmacology named after Academician S.V. Anichkova,
S.O. Khan1,
Laboratory researcher,

1 Research and manufacturing company “Home оf Pharmacy”,
188663, Russia, Leningrad oblast, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy t.s., Zavodskaya st. 3–245;
2 Institute of Experimental Medicine, S.V. Anichkov Department of Neuropharmacology,
197376, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Akademika Pavlova st. 12.

* E-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: tiletamine hydrochloride zolazepam hydrochloride xylazine hydrochloride propofol medetomidine hydrochloride


The study was performed without external funding.

For citation:

Akimov D.Yu., Shabanov P.D., Khan S.O. Anesthesia in preclinical studies. Message 2: dwarf pigs. Laboratory Animals for Science. 2023; 2.


Anesthesia of dwarf pigs, depending on the expected severity of the procedures, is an urgent issue in preclinical studies. The effect of different doses and combinations of drugs was studied: Xyla® (xylazine hydrochloride, Estonia) and Zoletil® (tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride, France); Zoletil® and Propofol® (propofol, Germany); Meditin® (medetomidine hydrochloride, Russian Federation) and Isoflurane® (India); Xyla® (Estonia) and Isoflurane®, Propofol® (Germany) and Isoflurane® (India); Meditin® (Russian Federation) on the duration of anesthesia, glucose levels and physiological parameters of dwarf pigs. It was found that for procedures characterized by a mild degree of duration (up to 20 minutes), a combination of xylazine hydrochloride (0.1 mg/kg) in combination with tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) should be used. For moderate severity procedures, combinations of xylazine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) and tiletamine hydrochloride with zolazepam hydrochloride (6 mg/kg) can be used, if necessary, anesthetic support for about 1 hour; if 40-minute anesthesia is sufficient, medetomidine hydrochloride (100 mcg) can be used + isoflurane (4.5:1.0 vol.%); xylazine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) + isoflurane (4.5:1.0 vol.%); with 30-minute anesthesia — xylazine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) + isoflurane (4.5:1.0 vol.%). In the case of anesthetic support for procedures characterized as severe or “without leaving anesthesia”, a combination of xylazine hydrochloride (22 mg/kg) and tiletamine hydrochloride in combination with zolazepam hydrochloride (8.8 mg/kg), the duration of anesthesia up to 84 minutes; and medetomidine hydrochloride (100 mcg) are applicable + isoflurane (4.5:1.5 vol.%), duration of action up to 40 minutes; xylazine hydrochloride (8 mg/kg) + isoflurane (4.5:1.5 vol.%). The use of a combination of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride together with propofol, propofol and isoflurane is not recommended or requires additional study. A combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (100 mcg) and isoflurane (4.5:1.0 vol.%) leads to an increase in glucose levels in male dwarf pigs. In the case of a combination of xylazine hydrochloride (8 mg/kg) and isoflurane (4.5:1.5 vol.%) glucose levels increase in both males and females. Xylazine hydrochloride in combination with tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride, depending on the dose, leads to a decrease in saturation, an increase in the P and PQ intervals (P wave and PQ interval) and, regardless of the dose, increases the frequency of respiratory movements. Medetomidine hydrochloride and isoflurane lead to an increase in blood pressure and an increase in the P wave and the PQ interval with a moderate degree of anesthesia. The use of a combination of xylazine hydrochloride and isoflurane with moderate and deep anesthesia leads to an increase in PQ.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Authors contribution

D.Y. Akimov — development of research design, work planning, data acquisition and analysis of results writing the text of the article; responsibility for all aspects of the work related to the reliability of data, approval of the final version of the article for publication.
P.D. Shabanov — critical revision of the article.
S.O. Khan — animal care.

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Received: 2023-02-07
Reviewed: 2023-04-27
Accepted for publication: 2023-05-10

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