Variability of blood biochemical parameters and establishment of reference intervals in preclinical studies. Part 6: Macaca fascicularis

Original article

УДК 001.891.53
DOI: 10.29296/2618723X-2022-02-02

M.V. Miroshnikov*, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Hematology,;
K.T. Sultanova, Candidate of Medical Sciences,;
M.A. Kovaleva, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Head of the scientific and methodological group,;
M.N. Makarova, MD, Director,

Research and manufacturing company «Home оf Pharmacy»,
188663, Russia, Leningrad oblast, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy t. s., Zavodskaya st. 3-245

* e-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: non-human primate Macaca fascicularis biomedical research biochemical parameters serum


The study was performed without external funding.

For citation:

Miroshnikov M.V., Sultanova K.T., Kovaleva M.A., Makarova M.N. Variability of blood biochemical parameters and establishment of reference intervals in preclinical studies. Part 6: Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Animals for Science. 2022; 2.


Despite numerous attempts to find alternative models to evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs, it is currently impossible to completely abandon research on large laboratory animals. Macaca fascicularis play an important role in preclinical studies in the study of vaccines, the development of pharmaceuticals, and toxicological studies. Genetic proximity to humans causes the similarity of the two species according to physiological and biochemical criteria, the pathogenesis of certain diseases and the mechanism of action of various chemicals on the body. These animals are susceptible to age-related pathologies characteristic of humans, such as cardiovascular diseases, behavioral disorders, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of cynomolgus macaque in preclinical studies mediates the need for laboratory control of the internal state of animals. The paper reviewed and analyzed the reference values of some biochemical parameters of the blood of Macaca fascicularis. To form the intervals, we used data obtained from intact animals on the basis of research and manufacturing company «Home оf Pharmacy». The normal ranges of such parameters as creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulins, albumin/globulin ratio, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase obtained during the work were comparable between male and female primates. The exception is alkaline phosphatase — the reference range of the indicator under consideration in males was much wider than in females. When comparing the reference intervals obtained at «Home оf Pharmacy» with the intervals of Macaca fascicularis from literary sources, it is shown that, in general, the ranges of the indicators under consideration are comparable, but there are also differences that may be caused by animal stress, methods of processing and blood sampling, nutrition, climate, conditions of detention and age. The obtained reference ranges of biochemical blood parameters of cynomolgus macaque are necessary in preclinical studies to create a high-quality basis for future experimental studies using Macaca fascicularis, more accurate analysis of the information obtained and monitoring of animal health.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Authors contribution

M.V. Miroshnikov — analysis of scientific literature and guidelines, writing, editing and revision of the text, carrying responsibility for all aspects of the study related to the reliability of the data.
K.T. Sultanova — writing and editing of the text, summarising the study results, preparation of the tables.
M.A. Kovaleva — аnalysis of scientific literature and guidelines, revision of the text.
M.N. Makarova — idea, editing of the text, editing of the text.


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Received: 2022-02-09
Reviewed: 2022-03-30
Accepted for publication: 2022-04-26

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