In clinical practice and in pharmacological studies, microscopic analysis is an integral part of the study of normal structure of tissues and pathologically altered organs. To prepare the material for histological examination, visualization is carried out by staining the tissue with dyes. The most common routine staining is hematoxylin and eosin, which is not enough to reveal the full picture of the process. Therefore, it is necessary to use a number of additional stains. Some of them can be used as routine instead of classical hematoxylin and eosin, for example, van Gieson stains or Mallory trichrome. Most stains are more specific, and they are used to identify specific structures or chemical compounds in cells and tissues. This allows you to obtain a significant amount of information, which facilitates an understanding the course of normal and pathological processes. Methods for the detection of mucopolysaccharides with Alcian blue are used in the study of the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. PAS staining is necessary in the diagnosis of accumulation diseases, some oncological processes and fungal infections. Fat-soluble dyes, primarily Sudan III and scharlach red are used in the study of dystrophic diseases and atherosclerosis. The Oil Red O dye is applicable for macroscopic assessment of the area of atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta. Congo red is the most popular dye for the amyloid detection. Specialized dyes for the diagnosis of myocardial damage were considered, such as (HBFP) (Haematoxylin-Basic Fuchsin-picric acid) and tetrasolium salts to visualize the area of damage to the heart muscle and brain. In this review, we examined several histological dyes, some features of their application, as well as mechanisms of the dye-substrate interaction in tissues. These staining methods can be used during histological work, and consider the possibility of their use, which will help to identify, as well as comprehensively study the pathological processes modeled in preclinical studies.
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