Overview of pre-clinical models of sepsis and septic shock

L.R. Nikiforova, microbiologist, ORCID 0000-0001-8710-2023

K.L. Kryshen, PhD, Head of Toxicology and Microbiology Department, ORCID 0000-0003-1451-7716

K.Е. Borovkova, head of microbiological laboratory, ORCID 0000-0003-1571-6549

J.V. Salmova, microbiologist, ORCID 0000-0001-9891-8634

 

Institute of Pre-Clinical Research Ltd.
188663, Russia, Leningrad Region, Kuzmolovsky, Zavodskaya St.3, Build. 245
Е-mail: nikiforova.lr@doclinika.ru

Abstract

Sepsis is a life-threatening pathological condition of the body that occurs as a result of a systemic inflammatory response to infection. The development of sepsis can occur as a result of various bacterial, fungal and viral infections, such as COVID-19 or the flu. Over the past two years, the amount of deaths in the world from sepsis and septic shock has skyrocketed due to the spread of COVID-19. Due to the rapid increase in mortality from sepsis and septic shock, there is an urgent need to find new and improved therapies more than ever. An integral part of the development and testing of new drugs are preclinical studies using animal models. In this review, we reviewed and summarized research materials in the field of preclinical models of sepsis, the main pathogens and methods of pathology induction. According to the data presented in scientific articles, sepsis is most often modeled in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep and primates. Among animal models of sepsis, mice and rats are often used because of their small size, ease of experimentation, availability of genetically modified species, and relatively low cost. Large animals are considered the most suitable and accurate objects for modeling sepsis; these models not only allow serial sampling, but also have immunological and physiological functions very similar to humans. Non-human primate models mimic human sepsis more accurately than any other animal species, due to anatomical, molecular and physiological similarities. Despite all the advantages, the use of primates in sepsis research carries certain limitations, such as the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, high maintenance costs and ethical considerations. Almost all currently used sepsis models involve the initial administration of infectious agents, or their components, which subsequently trigger an inflammatory cascade of reactions. The choice of animals, the method of induction and the parameters to be evaluated depend on the objectives of the study.

Full text avaliable in Russain only 

Authors contribution 

L.R. Nikiforova – literary data collection, data collection and analysis, swriting and editing of the text

K.L. Kryshen – study concept and design, editing of the text, supervised the project, approved the final version of the manuscript

K.E. Borovkova – formalization of the article

J.V. Salmova – formalization of the article

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest requiring disclosure in this article.

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