The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome annually increases progressively in modern society. It causes increased morbidity and mortality from delayed complications. Today, metabolic pathologies are socially significant diseases leading to deterioration of the patient's quality of life. The use of adequate experimental models makes it possible to understand the causes of the development and mechanisms of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, to research the potential methods of their prevention and therapy. Referring to the metabolic syndrome, it should be noted that it is a multifactorial symptom complex of pathological changes, and the choice of the experimental model is fundamental for obtaining objective results. This review is devoted to the description of the most reliable and studied genetic models of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, systematized in reference to the type of laboratory animals. It shows the main characteristics, including biochemical, of mouse and rat lines, which characterize the state of carbohydrate (glucose and insulin concentration), lipid metabolism (concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides), energy metabolism (leptin). The mouse line with Lepob/obleptin deficiency, the mouse and rat lines with LepRdb/dbleptin deficiency, Zucker fatty rats, Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, substrains of Spontaneoulsy hypertensive rats, Obese spontaneously hypertensive rats/Koletsky rats and SHR/NDmc-corpulent rats. Transgenic mice: MC4R - / -, Agouti yellow, KKAy/a, which are characterized by the development of resistance to leptin due to a defect in the transmission of the leptin signal to the cell, are also considered. The biometric parameters of blood pressure are also given for rats. The given information is about the changes of key characteristics, depending on sex and age of the laboratory animals. Each of the examined rodent lines has specific properties specific to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, which allows to study in detail the mechanisms of the development of pathologies, as well as potential drugs for the therapy of these diseases.
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