Diet-Induced Models Of Metabolic Disorders. Report 5: Experimental Hypertension

М.N. Makarova, Dr. Med. Sci., director, V.G. Makarov, Dr. Med. Sci., professor, deputy director JSC «Research-and-manufacturing company «Houm оf Pharmacy», Russia, 188663, Leningradskiy region, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy, st. Zavodskaya, 3. b. 245 Е-mail: makarova.mn@doclinika.ru

Abstract

Despite the use of a huge number of new drugs, hypertension (AG) remains the most common disease and one of the main causes of mortality in the world. However, the lack of a full understanding of the pathogenesis of AG does not allow for an effective cure of this disease: while all drugs remove only the main symptom – high blood pressure (BP). In this regard, the need for further research on the pathogenesis of AG, the search for means of its prevention and treatment is not in doubt. The analysis of modern literature allowed to establish that for the induction of salt AG the most commonly used diets containing 4% to 8% NaCl, rarely administered NaCl with drinking water in the form of 1% solution. The duration of NaCl application varies from 10 days to 36 weeks. BP increases in direct proportion to the amount of salt in the diet of animals and the duration of NaCl. The maximum rise in BP occurs on the 40-50 day stay on a high-salt diet, then there is a decrease in BP. The best models for high-salt suitable for AG spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) who have systolic BP reaches 190 mm Hg and above, also salt-sensitive rats Dahl – 170 mm Hg and above. Some researchers use diets containing 60% fructose, or diets with 10% fructose added to water for drinking. They use mainly rats, an outbred wild lines (Sprague Dawley, etc.). However, for models using fructose require longer periods for the development of AG than for salt – from 8 weeks to 12 months (most often – 3-5 months). Therefore, the most effective are high-salt models of AG (8% NaCl in the diet) with the addition of 4 or 10% fructose to drinking water. To accelerate the development of AG content of potassium, calcium and zinc in the diet should be less than normal, and the amount of phosphorus, on the contrary, above normal. It is also possible to study AG on models of metabolic syndrome, obesity and kidney disease. To assess the development of AG used indicators of BP (systolic, diastolic, average), metabolism, endothelial, kidney, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, heart mass, urine volume and others.

References

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