Animal models of fungal infections

K.Е. Borovkova, head of microbiological laboratory, ORCID: 0000-0003-1571-6549;
M.N. Makarova, Dr. Med. Sci., Director, ORCID: 0000-0003-3176-6386;
L.R. Nikiforova, microbiologist, ORCID: 0000-0001-8710-2023;
J.V. Salmova, microbiologist, ORCID: 0000-0001-9891-8634

Institute of Pre-Clinical Research Ltd.
188663, Russia, Leningrad Region, Kuzmolovsky, Zavodskaya St.3, Build. 245
Е-mail: borovkova.ke@doclinika.ru

Abstract

Every year, the number of infections caused by microscopic fungi is growing due to an increasing resistance to various antifungal drugs and increasing number of people with weakened immune systems.Animal studies enable us to explore the pathogenesis, immunological reactions of the body to fungal infection, testing of new antifungal compounds, and much more. The most of fungal infection models is associated with Dermatophytes, Candida аnd Aspregillus, since they are the causative agents of most human fungal infections. Various types of animals from small rodents to cattle are used in experimental models. The most preferred animals used in vivo studies are mice. These animals have a number of advantages, such as a wide variety of strains, cheap price, low maintenance and convenience when carrying out manipulations. However, this type of animal is not suitable for all studies. For example, guinea pigs are frequently used for testing antifungal compounds against dermatophytes, due to structural similarities between their skin and human skin. While choosing the animal species, it is necessary to keep in mind the fact that most animals are resistant to pathogens of human infections. In order to cause a stable infection, the immunity of experimental  animal should be suppressed. It is also necessary to take into account methods of infection and concentration of a causative agent in addition to choosing an animal and a pathogen. To form the development of the infectioning process, it is necessary to use the method of infection similar to the natural path of infection. In addition to studies of fungal infections on laboratory animals, alternative models are used on invertebrates. These models cannot completely replace studies on mammals, but they can be used for additional studies to expand our knowledge about fungal pathogenesis, to explore the virulence of fungi and to discover the new antifungal compounds. Thus, it is necessary to consider many factors for creating an infectious process with clinical  features similar to a human being, while planning a study of fungal infections in vivo.

Full text avaliable in Russain only 

Authors contribution

K.E. Borovkova – literary data collection, data collection and analysis, swriting and editing of the text

M.N. Makarova – study concept and design, editing of the text, supervised the project, approved the final version of the manuscript

L.R. Nikiforova – scientific advice

J.V. Salmova – scientific advice

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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