The intranasal drug delivery has been become increasingly interesting not only for the treatment of acute and chronic nasal cavity diseases but mainly for drug delivery to the central nervous system and/or systemic blood over the past decades. The high permeability and vascularization of nasal mucosa, coupled with the preventing of the first-pass metabolism and/or drug destruction into gastro-intestinal tract, is provided by intranasal administration. In that regard, such delivery ensures more effective absorption of a tested object than via oral route. The using intranasal delivery of larger molecules not absorbed via oral route (such as peptide-protein drugs and vaccines) has also become a reality even though the nasal absorption of these compounds decreases with their molecular weight. As the demand for drugs with the intranasal administration grows, there is increased need for assessment of pharmacodynamics and toxic properties of drug before pharmaceutical marketing. This article presents an overview of the intranasal administration to laboratory animals. For optimizing the delivery of the agent to the animal and minimizing potential adverse experiences from the procedure it is required a detailed consideration and planning of administration of tested object to laboratory animals. The overview covers the volume of administration, equipment, as well as interspecific nose structure differences, surface area and physiology that need to be taken into account while planning the experiment. To accomplish targeting it may be manipulated variables such as the equipment of administration, volume and pharmaceutical dosage form (liquid, gas, vapor, powder), particle size, chemical properties and composition. The design of research of intranasal administration of tested objects should take into account the volume of administration and the using of anesthesia affecting the delivery performance. These two important factors will determine the relative distribution of the delivered substance to the upper and lower respiratory tracts and entry into the gastrointestinal tract.
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