The high incidence of osteoporosis dictates the need to find ways to effectively prevent and treat it, including in animal experiments. Of the huge number of models on different types of animals (rodents, rabbits, sheep, etc.), the most part is used by rats, which not only have a similarity of pathophysiological reactions of the skeleton with those of man, but also convenient to maintain, maintain and breed, cheap and do not have such ethical restrictions as dogs, cats and monkeys, etc. In this case, apply mainly rats wild outbred lines (Sprague Dawley, etc.).
For the induction of osteoporosis, the most appropriate are complex methods that combine ovariectomy in females or orchidectomy in males, with simultaneous administration of corticosteroids against the background of a diet deficient in calcium, and sometimes in phosphorus and vitamin D. in This case, females are preferable to males due to the faster development of osteoporosis. Usually, synthetic diets containing 0.1% and less calcium are used to model osteoporosis (control animals receive a diet with 0.6–1.1% calcium).
To assess the presence of osteoporosis in experimental animals should be used indicators characterizing both the intensity of bone formation (activity of alkaline phosphatase, the content of osteocalcin and procollagen I serum polypeptides), and the level of bone resorption (activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase of blood serum, the content of hydroxyproline and pyridinolines in urine). In addition, it is important to the content of calcium and phosphorus in the blood serum, excretion of calcium in the urine, bone mineral density, weight of the thighs and their rupture test, as well as histomorphology of bone tissues. It is shown that the greatest changes in animals with osteoporosis are characteristic of indicators characterizing the strength of bone tissues and their weight, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, body weight, excretion of calcium in the urine, while the content of calcium and serum phosphorus does not change significantly.
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