Variability of blood biochemical parameters and establishment of reference intervals in preclinical studies. Part 3: mini pigs

DOI: 10.29296/2618723X-2020-03-02

N.G. Voitenko, ORCID 0000-0002-3164-4971,   

M.N. Makarova, ORCID 0000-0003-3176-6386

Research and manufacturing company «Home оf Pharmacy»,

188663, Russia, Leningrad oblast, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy t.s., Zavodskaya st. 3-245

Е-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: reference intervals of biochemical indicators normal values of biochemical indicators mini pigs

For citation:

Voitenko N.G, Makarova M.N. Variability of blood biochemical parameters and establishment of reference intervals in preclinical studies. Part 3: mini pigs. Laboratory Animals for Science. 2020; 3.


. For today, scientists have more than a dozen other laboratory animals at their disposal to conduct toxicological, pharmacokinetic and other studies in addition to rodents. Pigs have been used for a long time to study organ and tissue transplants and surgical training for medical students, but their use can be much broader. The anatomical similarity to humans and the large size of these animals allow us to successfully conduct studies of the cardiovascular, digestive and urinary systems, as well as use them in preclinical and Toxicological studies. In this regard, the establishment of reference intervals of biochemical blood parameters of laboratory pigs is an urgent task.

Our article presents reference intrevals of biochemical parameters of blood of dwarf pigs obtained using the classical approach. We used the results of biochemical blood analysis of 15 males and 15 females of clinically healthy dwarf pigs aged 9-11 months, weighing 14-26 kg, raised in our nursery. In addition to the main biochemical parameters (creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, glucose, and total bilirubin), additional parameters are presented – an expanded lipid profile, calcium and phosphorus concentrations, and the activity of a number of enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, amylase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and cholinesterases), which are biochemical markers of damage to various systems and organs.

The most pronounced differences were found in the study of the lipid profile of male and female dwarf pigs: the concentration of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood of females was higher on average by 1.5 and 2 times, respectively. In addition, the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood serum of females was on average 1.8 times higher than in the blood serum of males. Less pronounced but statistically significant differences were found in the concentration of total protein and globulins.

The analysis of the presented reference intervals with the literature data showed the comparability of the obtained values. Despite the significant similarity of the biochemical profiles of humans and laboratory pigs, it is necessary to take into account the presence of species differences when considering the results of preclinical studies.

Full text avaliable in Russain only

Authors’ сontributions

Natalya.G. Voitenko – idea, planning, design development, collection and systematisation of material, analysis and interpretation of results, writing and revising the text.

Marina N. Makarova – idea, design development.


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