Makarova M., Makarov V. Diet-induced Models of Metabolic Disorders. Report 6: Experimental Anemia. Laboratory Animals for Science. 2019; 2. https://doi.org/10.29296/2618723X-2019-02-04
The widespread prevalence of anemia, mainly iron deficiency, among the world's population determines the need for constant search for means of prevention and treatment of this disease, which is impossible without adequate experimental models. For modeling anemia use mostly rats and mice (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, C57BL/6 and others.), rarely Guinea pigs, primarily females and cubs. Semi-synthetic diets (AIN-93G, TD.80396 and others) with reduced iron content (5.2–7.8–8 mg / kg diet), the standard diet of control animals contains 35 mg/kg of iron for rats and mice, about 100 mg/kg diet – for Guinea pigs. The article presents the characteristics and composition of semi-synthetic diets for modeling iron deficiency anemia in laboratory animals, which is manifested by growth retardation, weight loss, tolerance to physical activity and cognitive activity, splenomegaly and cardiomegaly, weakening of immunity. The data on the main morphological (the number of red blood cells, reticulocytes, platelets and their indices) and biochemical (the concentration of hemoglobin of blood and red blood cells, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, the activity of redox enzymes) blood parameters to assess the effectiveness of the studied drugs. The parameters of changes in the state of blood and metabolism given in the article give an idea of the direction of these changes in the development of experimental anemia. For example, a significant decrease in body weight, a drop in hemoglobin levels, a tendency to reduce the average hemoglobin content in erythrocytes, their average volume, as well as iron content in serum and liver, serum ferritin concentration, against the background of a sharp increase in the total iron binding capacity of blood serum, reducing the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. These disorders, indicating the development of microcytic, hypochromic iron deficiency anemia in animals, allow to evaluate their dynamics in the subsequent testing of the studied therapeutic agents.
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