Determination of reference intervals of creatinine clearance in laboratory animals

Original article

УДК 616-092.9+612.461.17
DOI: 10.57034/2618723X-2022-04-03

M.V. Miroshnikov, PhD, Head of Laboratory Diagnostics Department,
K.T. Sultanova, PhD, Head of the Department of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology,
M.A. Kovaleva, PhD, Head of the scientific and methodological group,
M.A. Akimova, Chief animal technician,
M.N. Makarova, MD, Director,

Research and manufacturing company “Home оf Pharmacy”,
188663, Russia, Leningrad oblast, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy t.s., Zavodskaya st. 3–245.

* E-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: renal function endogenous creatinine clearance reference intervals biochemical analysis of urine daily urine blood serum


The study was performed without external funding.

For citation:

Miroshnikov M.V., Sultanova K.T., Kovaleva M.A., Akimova M.A., Makarova M.N. Determination of reference intervals of creatinine clearance in laboratory animals. Laboratory Animals for Science. 2022; 4.


The assessment of renal function is an important part of monitoring the health of laboratory animals in preclinical studies. One of the most important indicators for the assessment of renal function is serum creatinine concentration and endogenous creatinine clearance. Creatinine is the breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle tissue, which is further filtered from the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Its level depends on the amount of muscle mass and the intensity of the animals metabolic processes. In general, an increase in creatinine levels in the blood reflects insufficient renal filtration ability, it is worth noting that creatinine concentration is not a specific marker of nephropathies, making its single use in the assessment of renal dysfunction incorrect. One of the indicators to monitor animal health as well as renal excretory dysfunction is endogenous creatinine clearance, which reflects the level of glomerular filtration. A review of the literature has shown that information on endogenous creatinine clearance in laboratory animals is insufficient and the data vary widely between animal species and between lines of the same animal species. A review of the literature has shown that information on endogenous creatinine clearance in laboratory animals is insufficient and the data vary widely between animal species and between lines of the same animal species. The aim of the study was to establish a base of reference intervals of creatinine clearance in laboratory animals — CD-1 mice, Mongolian gerbils, Syrian hamsters, Wistar rats, Agouti guinea pigs, ferrets, cats, Beagle dogs, minipigs, rabbits, Javanese macaques and marmoset. In the course of the work, a method of obtaining urine samples within 24 hours using metabolic cells was perfected. Urine collection in large animals was carried out using a hydrophobic bedding. Creatinine clearance was determined for all animals under the same conditions using common analytical methods. The endogenous creatinine clearance values of laboratory animals established in this work may be useful in the evaluation of nephrotoxicity within the framework of pharmacological safety, in the study of the pharmacological potential of new nephrotherapeutic agents, and in the monitoring of animal health.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Authors contribution

M.V. Miroshnikov — analysis of scientific literature and guidelines, writing, editing and revision of the text, carrying responsibility for all aspects of the study related to the reliability of the data.
K.T. Sultanova — writing and editing of the text, summarising the study results, preparation of the tables.
M.A. Kovaleva — аnalysis of scientific literature and guidelines, revision of the text.
M.A. Akimova — manipulations with laboratory animals, obtaining data.
M.N. Makarova — idea, editing of the text.


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Received: 2022-08-25
Reviewed: 2022-10-13
Accepted for publication: 2022-10-27

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