In pre-clinical studies on laboratory animals the most often studied substances are oral. The data for different types of laboratory animals is very contradictory and ambiguous. However, the differences between them can have a significant effect on the obtained result. Analysis of the literature data revealed the main features of anatomically and histologically similarity of the human’s and laboratory animals’ oral cavity structure. The oral cavity is the initial section of the digestive system, where the food lump undergoes mechanical and chemical treatment. Development of the face and mouth is carried out on the same principle of common embryonic rudiments. Anatomically and histologically the oral cavity of the examined species has similar structures. But the structure of the oral cavity was greatly influenced by the nature of the familiar food. First of all the most differences can be noted in the structure of the teeth and the dental formula. So, for example, in humans and rabbits, there are two consecutive generations of teeth, while the remaining animals have only one set. In humans, rodents and hares different and the structure of molars. A cardinal difference was found in the histological structure of the oral mucosa. In humans and partly in rabbits the lining represented by neorogovevayuschy multilayered epithelium, whereas in rodents it keratinized in all departments, also varies the thickness and number of layers. by a multilayered non keratinized epithelium. While in rodents it is keratinizing in all departments and the thickness and number of layers are differ.
The blood supply, lymph drainage and innervation of the oral cavity occur in the same way in humans and animals. This comparative review will help in the planning of studies and further work with the obtained data, and will also be useful for histologists, physiologists and pathologists working with laboratory animals.
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