The ethical concept of biocentrism of the late twentieth century formed a special algorithm for a humane approach to animals in the scientific world, overcoming the desire of scientists to implement scientific and technological progress by any means and methods, and forming a special worldview
societies in relation to animals. All this has contributed to the emergence of new research methods that replace living organisms with models and simulators. The article mentions the historical path in the approaches to replacing vivisection with methods based on the 3R principles, which are successfully used at the Department of physiology of the medical faculty of the Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education "Saint Petersburg state University" (hereinafter referred to as SPBU), allowing students to lay the necessary foundations of ethical behavior in experimental research. Interdisciplinary cooperation of teachers of bioethics and physiology allows to Orient Junior students of the faculty of medicine in the complex process of mastering medical knowledge based on a humane approach to all living things. Introduction of alternative learning tools focused on 1R (complete replacement of animals with alternatives) is a priority strategy of the Department of physiology in the implementation of the educational process. Fostering a humane attitude towards animals in students is an important part of the learning process at St. Petersburg state University. The authors believe that the use of animals in research is acceptable only if the knowledge obtained in the course of experiments will be used in clinical practice to solve specific problems in the treatment and prevention of human and animal diseases: to reveal the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, safety assessment of new drugs and training of doctors specializing in surgery. The desire of physiology teachers to introduce new approaches in experiments focused on 1R into the process of practical training will benefit students in mastering the program material, since, by joining the ideas of humanism, the pragmatic side of medicine will not become a problem of professional deformation for them. This approach to training future doctors, based on the moral categories of "mercy", "humanity" and "empathy", will help them in the long-term practice of treating people.
Authors ' contributions
T.V. Kovaleva – collecting data from literary sources, writing individual fragments of text, editing text.
L.B. Zakharova – work with sources of literature, writing individual fragments of text, editing text.
E.N. Pariiskaya – idea, work with sources of literature, writing individual fragments of the text, text editing.
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