The respiratory system is one of the most important systems of organism, providing oxygen from the air to respiratory tract, carrying out gas exchange and removing carbon dioxide back into the environment. Respiratory system diseases affect at the lives of large numbers of people around the world. Planning studies with assessment of pharmacological activity and toxicity of drugs via endotracheal and inhalation routes of administration it should be considered specific features in anatomy, microstructure and pathophysiological processes in various animal species, including in comparison with humans. This review considers anatomical and histological features of respiratory system of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, pigs and dogs, which are used in biomedical studies and their comparative characteristics regard to the structure of respiratory system in humans. Studying of literature data, it was found that the most similarity to humans, both at macroscopic and microscopic levels, is in guinea pigs and dwarf pigs. The search for articles published in English was carried in the Google Scholar and PubMed (1970–2020) databases, in Russian - in the scientific electronic library eLIBRARY.RU. In addition to considering anatomical and histological features of respiratory system structure of laboratory animals, this review also included models of lung pathologies reproduced in the animals listed above. So, to modeling chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibrosis, inflammation, emphysema mice and rats are used. Mice of certain lines like guinea pigs are used to modeling asthma. Laboratory animals are also used to reproduce bacterial and viral diseases of respiratory system. Thus, a very careful approach to selection of a test system is required for modeling diseases of respiratory system. This is necessary to obtain more similar clinical symptoms and pathophysiological processes with humans in certain lung pathologies, which in the future will make it possible to better predict pharmacodynamic and toxic effects of drugs in clinical practice.
Authors ' contributions
D.R. Kargopoltceva – idea of research, literary data collection, writing of the text.
А.Е. Katelnikova – literary data collection, editing of the text.
К.L. Kryshen – literary data collection, editing of the text.
Ya.A. Guschin – literary data collection, editing of the text.
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