The use of inhalantational anaesthesia in preclinical studies

M. Makarova, ORCID 0000-0003-3176-6386.

St. Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy

188663, Russia, Leningradskiy region, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy t.s., Zavodskaya st. 3-245

Е-mail: makarova.mn@doclinika.ru

Abstract

Today, the use of inhalation anesthesia for the anesthesia and oxygenation of laboratory animals is increasingly used, as it allows for well controlled anesthesia. An important aspect of inhalation anaesthesia is its availability to research centers, unlike a number of injection drugs for anesthesia that are restricted to use in the Russian Federation. The main advantages of inhalation anaesthesia in preclinical studies are its high controllability (ability to change the depth of anaesthesia, long-term maintenance of anesthesia and quick wake-up of the patient), possibility to combine anesthesia with artificial ventilation of the lungs, i.e., control of gas exchange, good compatibility with other drugs for general anaesthesia and provision of other components of anesthesia.

The article is a review of literature data. In it the approaches to calculation of inhalation anesthetics consumption (sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane) are considered. The mechanism of action, interaction, pharmacological effects as well as undesirable reactions of anesthetics are highlighted. Pharmacological safety issues are considered, effects of inhalation anesthetics on cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous systems are described. The information on features of anesthetization of some laboratory animals (mouse, rat, rabbit, ferret, cat, mini-pig) is presented. On an example of mini-pig it is described influence of a combination of preparations on physiological parameters, depending on duration of anesthesia. Special attention is paid to the operator's safety during anesthesia. The operator's safety during anesthesia includes exposure to anesthetic gases, handling of gas cylinders and possible drug abuse.

The data presented in the literature review demonstrate the necessity to develop effective methods of anesthesia using a single drug or a combination of drugs at each testing center, to create standard anesthesia support schemes and protocols, with a specific drug regimen to achieve mild, moderate and deep anesthesia for different animal species. It is necessary to evaluate changes in biochemical indicators and physiological parameters during anesthesia in laboratory animals.

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