Respiratory organs provide the gas exchange function in which various pathogenic substance and microorganisms causing respiratory diseases can enter the organism and settle in the epithelial surface of lungs and airway tracts. Therefore, diseases of organs respiratory system of various etiologies are most common and affect all mammals. In this regard there is a need to develop drugs for a treatment of respiratory diseases. The bronchoalveolar lavage is the traditional invasive technique allowing to collect lavage from animals’ airway tracts and lungs for diagnosis of diseases in veterinary or for researching respiratory toxicity of test medicines in preclinical studies. The technique of bronchoalveolar lavage is frequently used because this procedure represents a simple and cost-effective method and makes it possible to minimize physical damaging of animal for subsequent postoperative recovery, if necessary. The advantage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis is that one can pick up early indicators of biochemical, cytology and microbiology changes leading to later morphological changes in a disease process. It is important to correctly perform the procedure of sampling, processing and analyzing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, i.e.: any damage to the lungs and respiratory tracts must be avoided; to carry out manipulations with samples of flushing of the respiratory system as soon as possible and in a cooled state. This procedure is based on washing of lungs and respiratory tracts with a isotonic wash fluid, but it has sequence of specificities that depend on the animal species and the purpose of collecting bronchoalvolar lavage: the choice of an open or closed method, wash fluid, its volume and number of wash fluid recovery and other specificities. In current review various specific techniques of bronchoalveolar lavage collecting have been considered, which should be taken into account when achieving the task, as well as what components included in the bronchoalveolar lavage can be studied.
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