Osteoarthrosis (OA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases of different etiology. It progresses in synovial articulation with a gradual development of the disease. Currently, osteoarthrosis (OA) is a socially significant pathology that affects the quality and life expectancy of patients. The main impairments in OA – the processes of degeneration and destruction – develop at the level of articular cartilage. In recent years, scientists' views of the nature and mechanisms of OA development have undergone significant changes. Several decades ago, pathological changes in cartilage in OA were considered only as a consequence of natural age involution and degeneration. Currently, the key role in the development of the disease is assigned to the inflammatory process and changes in the subchondral bone. In foreign literature, the term "osteoarthritis" is often used, emphasizing the leading role of inflammation in the development of the disease. Preclinical studies make a significant contribution to the exploration of the mechanisms of OA pathogenesis. There are many methods of experimental pathology modeling, including surgical, as a result of which the changes in the tissue components of the joints are reproduced, imitating those in osteoarthrosis in humans.
The purpose of this work is to test the modeling of experimental chronic osteoarthrosis using Yoshioka M. approach and to establish the possibility of using this approach to assess the pharmacological activity of drugs for the treatment of osteoarthrosis. Osteoarthrosis was induced by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of a rabbit’s knee joint using the Yoshioka M. approach. The study was performed on 15 male rabbits, during the experiment the measurement of the circumference and pathomorphological examination of the joint was performed. Chondroitin sodium sulfate, a solution for intramuscular administration of 100 mg/ml at a dose of 6.72 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug, and Ketoprofen, capsules 320 mg at a dose of 16 mg/kg, was used as a negative control.
It was shown that the transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the rabbit’s left knee joint leads to the development of experimental pathology characterized by pronounced pathomorphological changes in the joint: the occurrence of erosions, areas of fragmentation and dissection, fibrosis of the articular capsule and ligaments. The positive control drug chondroitin sodium sulfate had a pronounced therapeutic effect, which was to reduce the circumference of the joint and it was confirmed by a pathological study. In the group of animals treated with Ketoprofen, only a decrease in the circumference of the joint was observed.
Thus, the results showed that this methodological approach reproduces some aspects of the pathological changes of the joint characteristic of osteoarthrosis, and is acceptable for the assessment of the pharmacological effects of drugs intended for the pathogenetic therapy of osteoarthrosis.
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