Acute bronchitis (OB) relate to the most pressing problems of modern pulmonology because of the high incidence of people. In this connection, there is a constant search and development of new medicines for the treatment of OB. In order to register new pharmacological substances and preparations based on them, experimental models are needed to evaluate specific pharmacological activity. This review comprehensively discusses the animal species used to model OB, pathology inductors and measured indicators. Search for articles published in English carried out using Google Scholar and PubMed databases (from 1961 to 2018). To search for articles in Russian a database of the scientific electronic library eLIBRARY.RU was used. Forty-three articles were considered acceptable for inclusion in this review. Despite the fact that the review is devoted to modeling OB this included articles with experimental modeling of acute tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopulmonary inflammation, acute lung damage and acute respiratory distress syndrome since the same pathological inducers and routes of administration are often used to model these pathologies. According to peer-reviewed articles mice and rats are mainly used to model acute damage to the lower respiratory tract and lungs. The most popular inducers for modeling acute bronchopulmonary pathology are lipopolysaccharide and cigarette smoke. Mostly used indicators for assessing damage in animals include analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage, histopathology and measurement of edema at different time points after pathology induction. Based on studies aimed to obtain inflammation in the respiratory tract of animals it was confirmed that it is impossible to receive inflammatory damage only in the bronchi, one way or another, lung tissue is involved and vice versa. This information will help researchers choose the appropriate method for the induction of OB in animals and informative indicators for developing a study protocol.
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