Diet-Induced Models Of Metabolic Disorders. Report 4: Experimental Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

М.N. Makarova, Doctor of Medicine, Director, V.G. Makarov, Doctor of Medicine, Professor, Deputy dir. of science JSC «Research-and-manufacturing company «Houm оf Pharmacy», Russia, 188663, Leningradskiy region, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy, st. Zavodskaya, 3. b. 245 Е-mail: makarova.mn@doclinika.ru

Abstract

Summary. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed chronic liver diseases, in the etiology of which a special role is played by increasing the proportion of sucrose, fructose and fat in the structure of the diet of the population. NAFLD is dangerous as complications from the liver (cirrhosis, liver cancer, etc.), and the impact on the growth of cardiovascular disease. In this regard, diet-induced models appear to be the most appropriate for use in animal experiments to assess the effectiveness of methods and means of prevention and treatment of NAFLD. As the literature analysis showed, rodents (mice, rats, rarely – Guinea pigs and hamsters) are most often used for NAFLD modeling, males are preferable, who develop liver disorders faster than females. Of large animals, such as mini-pigs, it is recommended to use lines with the rapid development of NAFLD, in particular, miniature pigs Lee-Sung. The most effective models for the rate of development and intensity of pathological changes in the liver are those using methionine- and choline-deficient diet, but the most adequate pathogenesis of human NAFLD development are those with high fat and carbohydrate content such as Western and/or Fast-food diets. Therefore, the use of diets with high fat and carbohydrate content on the background of methionine and choline deficiency is promising. To evaluation the development of NAFLD and the effectiveness of the studied therapeutic and prophylactic measures in animals the next indicators of the liver state are used: ALT, AST, liver triglycerides and mass, histology and histochemistry of liver tissue, etc.). In addition, widely used markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, CRP), the study of serum albumin, triglycerides and cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin resistance and others.

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