Diet-Induced Models Of Metabolic Disorders. Report 3: Experimental Diabetes

М. N. Makarova, Director, V. G. Makarov, Doctor of Medicine, Professor, Deputy dir. of science JSC «Research-and-manufacturing company «Houm оf Pharmacy» JSC «Research-and-manufacturing company «Houm оf Pharmacy», 188663, Russia, Leningradskiy region, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy, st. Zavodskaya, 3. b. 245 Е-mail: makarova.mn@doclinika.ru

Abstract

The increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), mainly type 2 diabetes, dangerous chronic complications due to hyperglycemia (diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic foot, diabetic neuropathy, atherosclerosis, etc.), dictates the need for extensive preclinical studies to find effective measures of prevention and treatment. This requires experimental models on animals most sensitive to the development of DM, adequate methods of inducing DM and evaluation criteria. As a result of the analysis of modern literature it was shown that rodents (mainly mice, including wild breeds) and mini-pigs are best suited for modeling type 2 diabetes. The closest in etiology and development mechanisms to type 2 DM in humans are diet-induced models, among which the most effective are diets enriched with sucrose or fructose. To accelerate the development of diet-induced type 2 DM, it is recommended to use small, individually selected doses of streptozotocin, allowing not to destroy completely the beta cells of the pancreas, as is the case with type 1 DM. The main criteria for the development of diabetes and the effectiveness of therapeutic and preventive measures are the content of glucose, insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin in blood plasma, the number of beta cells in the Islands of the pancreas, the area of distribution of the sugar curve, insulin resistance index, as well as histology and histochemistry of the pancreas and other organs.

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