Effect Of Different Species Of Anesthesia On Electrocardiogram Parameters In Rats

N. Lycheva(1), PhD, Senior Researcher, Head of the Toxicology Group, M. Makarova(2), Professor, Director, V. Makarov(1), Doctor of Medicine, Professor, General Director, A. Rybakova(2), PhD., deputy Director of Veterinary Medicine. 1-CJSC St. Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy, 188663, Russia, Leningradskiy Region, Vsevolozhsky District, Kuzmolovsky, st. Zavodskaya, 3, b. 245; 2-JSC «Research-and-manufacturing company «Houm оf Pharmacy», 188663, Russia, Leningradskiy region, Vsevolozhskiy district, Kuzmolovskiy, st. Zavodskaya, 3. b. 245 Е-mail: Natalia.lycheva@yandex.ru

Abstract

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most common diagnostic tools in medicine. The ECG record reflects the electrical activity of the heart and can provide information about the functional and structural characteristics of the myocardium. ECG analysis in rats is used in studies of the state of the cardiovascular system, both in physiological conditions and in scientific modeling on animals. ECG recording technique is simple, but interpretation of electrocardiographic parameters is a difficult task. This is due to a relatively small number of experimental studies, as well as a significant variation in the parameters of electrocardiography between studies. The latter is probably due to differences in the line of rats and the anesthetics used. The need for such studies is due to the ever increasing interest in ECG data in experimental physiology, pathophysiology, pre-clinical studies and the rapid development of translational research. In this article, we examined electrocardiographic parameters in rats, their normal range, and also the effect of the type of anesthesia on the change in ECG parameters. The review is limited to lines of outbred rats, Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats, since these three lines are most often used in experimental research models. The relevance of the study is due to the development of translational cardiovascular research. The study was performed on 250 outbred rats of both sexes. ECG was recorded against a background of narcotization with a mixture of tiletamine and zolepepam. The analysis and the results of our own studies demonstrate the lack of specific recommendations for the evaluation of ECG in rats. It was established that there were no sex differences in the various ECG parameters in rats. The effect of this anesthetic mixture on the variability of heart rate is determined. The duration of the PQ interval was comparable to the values obtained against the background of urethane anesthesia. At the same time, there was a significant increase in the QRS complex. The increase in the value of the QTc interval, which we showed for the first time when using this mixture of anesthetics, also attracts attention.

References

  1. Ahmad A., Sattar M., Rathore H. Impact of Isoprenaline and Caffeine on development of left ventricular hypertrophy and renal hemodynamic in Wistar Kyoto rats. Acta Pol. Pharm. 2015. 72: 1015–26. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150137
  2. Atli O., Ilgin S., Altuntas H. Evaluation of azithromycin induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Med 2015. 8: 3681–90.
  3. Badole S., Jangam G., Chaudhari S. L-glutamine supplementation prevents the development of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. PloS one 9: e92697, 2014. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092697.
  4. Berne R. M., Levy M. N. The Heart Generates its own ace maker activity. Cardiovascular Physiology, 8th ed., 2001. 28–38.
  5. Carll A.P., Haykal-Coates N., Winsett D.W. Particulate matter exposure exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy. Inhal. Toxicol. 2010. 22(5): 355–68. DOI: 10,3109 / 08958370903365692
  6. Chrastina A., Pokreisz P., Schnitzer J. Experimental model of transthoracic, vascular-targeted, photodynamically induced myocardial infarction. Am J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol 2014. 306: 270–8. DOI: 10,1152 / ajpheart.00818.2012
  7. De Bruin M., Pettersson M. Anti-HERG activity and the risk of drug-induced arrhythmias and sudden death. Eur. Heart. J. 2005. 26: 590–7. DOI: 10,1093 / eurheartj / ehi092
  8. Dragojevic-Simic V., Dobric S., Bokonjic D. Amifostine protection against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in rats. Anticancer Drugs 2004. 15: 169–78.
  9. Hall J., Guyton A., Schmitt W. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation. Guyton and Hall Textbook of medical physiology, Saunders, London, 2011. 143–53.
  10. Hamdy D., Brocks D. Experimental hyperlipidemia causes an increase in the electro- cardiographic changes associated with amiodarone. J. Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2009. 53: 1–8. DOI: 10,1097/ FJC.0b013e31819359d1
  11. Hazari M.S., Haykal-Coates N., Winsett D.W., Costa D.L., Farraj A.K. A single exposure to particulate or gaseous air pollution increases the risk of aconitine-induced cardiac arrhythmia in hypertensive rats. Toxicol. Sci. 2009a. 112: 532–42. DOI: 10,1093 / toxsci / kfp214
  12. Kelishomi R., Ejtemaeemehr S., Tavangar S. Morphine is protective against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rat. Toxicology 2008. 243: 96–104. DOI: 10,1016 / j.tox.2007.09.026
  13. Król M.., Ufnal M., Szulczyk B. Characterization of Disopyramide derivative ADD424042 as a non-cardiotoxic neuronal sodium channel blocker with broad-spectrum anticonvulsant activity in rodent seizure models. Eur J. Pharm. Sci 2016. 9:42-51. DOI: 10, 1016 / j.ejps.2015.10.002
  14. Mackiewicz U., Gerges J., Chu S. Ivabradine protects against ventricular arrhythmias in acute myocardial infarction in the rat. J. Cell Physiol. 2014. 229: 813–23. DOI: 10,1002 / jcp.24507
  15. Matus M., Kucerova D., Kruzliak P. Upregulation of SERCA2a following short-term ACE inhibition (by enalaprilat) alters contractile performance and arrhythmogenicity of healthy myocardium in rat. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2015. 403: 199–208. doi: 10.1007 / s11010-015-2350-1
  16. Miranda A., Costa-E-Sousa R., Werneck-De-Castro J. Time course of echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in myocardial infarct in rats. An Acad. Bras. Cienc. 2007. 79: 639–48. DOI.org/10.1590/S0001-37652007000400006
  17. Nattel S., Shiroshita-Takeshita A., Brundel B., Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: lessons from animal models. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2005. 48: 9–28. DOI: 10,1016 / j.pcad.2005.06.002
  18. Regan C., Cresswell H., Zhang R. Novel method to assess cardiac electrophysiology in the rat: characterization of standard ion channel blockers. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2005. 46: 68–75. DOI: 10.1097 / 01.fjc.0000162774.86780.9d
  19. Regan C., Stump G., Wallace A. In vivo cardiac electrophysiologic and antiarrhythmic effects of an isoquinoline IKur blocker, ISQ-1, in rat, dog, and nonhuman primate. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2007. 49: 236–45. DOI: 10,1097 / FJC.0b013e3180325b2a
  20. Roden D. Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004. 350: 1013–22. DOI: 10,1056 / NEJMra032426
  21. Rossi S., Fortunati I., Carnevali L., Baruffi S. The effect of aging on the specialized conducting system: a telemetry ECG study in rats over a 6 month period. PLoS One 2014. 14: 9 (11):e112697. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112697
  22. Sugiyama A., Takahara A., Honsho S. A simple in vivo atrial fibrillation model of rat induced by transesophageal atrial burst pacing. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2005. 98: 315–8. doi.org/10.1254/jphs.SCJ05002X
  23. Wagner G., Macfarlane P., Wellens H. AHA/ACCF/HRS recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram: part VI: acute ischemia/infarction: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society. Endorsed by the International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2009. 53: 1003–11. DOI: 10,1016 / j.jacc.2008.12.016
  24. Zorniak M., Mitrega K., Bialka S. Comparison of thiopental, urethane, and pentobarbital in the study of experimental cardiology in rats in vivo. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2010.56: 38–44. doi: 10.1097 / FJC.0b013e3181dd502c

You may be interested